With the introduction of the Aadhaar number by the Unique Identification Authority of India in 2009 and the proposed Human DNA Profiling Bill placed in the parliament in 2015, India seems to be stepping into the age where identification authentication moves from email addresses, bar codes and unique numbers to inherent biological properties as unique ‘identifiers’. However, in order to use these biological features as identifiers, the government needs to ensure that records of such material such as fingerprints, iris scans, DNA etc. are collected and stored alongside personal information for future comparison and verification. This brings us to confront various issues of personal privacy, security and bio-surveillance. In spite of opposition over privacy, security and marginalization concerns, 1.12 billion Indians – almost 88.2% of the population – have been enrolled under Aadhaar, which was declared voluntary by the Supreme court in 2015.
The 2007 DNA Profiling Bill was revised and reintroduced in Parliament in 2015, proposing to create a DNA database that will consist of profiles of criminals, victims, missing persons, unidentified dead bodies as well as consensual volunteers. The existing version of the Bill raises the same concerns that were resonated during the introduction of Aadhaar biometric data collection.Keeping these concerns in mind, and the fact that there is no stringent privacy legislation regarding personal privacy in India, this study compares the effectiveness of biometric and other such databases already in execution in other countries in order to suggest policy reforms that will enable the Human DNA Profiling Bill to ensure delivery of justice without compromising on individual’s privacy and human rights.
The police force’s role in conflict management and resolution is pivotal in crime prevention and maintaining law and order in India. This study on conflict management and resolution strategies at grass root levels investigates the following objectives: (a) to understand and analyze causes of conflict between the public and the police, (b) recognize ways in which conflict situations are handled by the police, (c) determine gaps between existing methods (d) develop recommendations for working together as a system. The findings have policy implications and is an important resource in creating social-educational, awareness and sensitization programmes for both public and police personnel.
It has been proposed in leading reports on Piracy and by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and Business Software Alliance (BSA) that digital piracy is more widespread in emerging or developing nations. The present study seeks to investigate if psychosocial, sociological and cultural factors affecting the attitude and behavior of individuals towards digital piracy have an influence over the increase or decrease in the prevalence of digital piracy. The demographic and cultural variables, such as, age, gender, religion, economic status, occupation that explain an individual’s propensity and rationale for digital piracy and their correlation with peer influence and online discussion forums will help us to form suitable neutralization techniques.